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Data conversion.

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Data conversion is the transformation of information from one format to another. Throughout a computer environment, data is encoded in several different ways. There are many ways in which information is transformed within the computer atmosphere. This may be smooth, as in the situation of improving to a more recent edition of a computer system.
Data conversion is technical process of changing the bits contained in the data from one format to another format for purpose of interoperability between computers. The simplest example of data conversion is a text file converted from one character encoding to another.
Some of the more complex conversions involve conversion of office file formats and conversion of audio, video and image file format which needs to consider different software applications to play or display them. To illustrate, a true color image can be easy to convert to grayscale but not the other way around. A Unix text file can be converted to Microsoft file by simply adding a CR byte but adding color information to a grayscale image cannot be programmatically done because only human judgment can know which colors are appropriate for each section of the image; this is not rule based that can be easily done by a computer.
Data conversion sometimes results to loss of information. For instance, converting a Microsoft Word file to plain text files results in a lot of data loss because the text file removes the Word formatting feature. To prevent this from happening, the target format must support the same data constructs and features of the source data.

Types of file conversions

Here is a list of the most common type of file conversions:

• Archive (Such as RAR to ZIP, or 7Z to TAR)
• Document (Such as DOCX to Doc, or TXT to RTF)
• Presentation (Such as PPTX to PPT, or ODP to SWF)
• E-Book (Such as MOBI to TXT, or PRC to EPUB)
• Image (Such as BMP to GIF, or PNG to JPG)
• Audio (Such as MP3 to M4A, or AAC to WAV)
• Video (Such as AVI to MP4, or MPEG to 3GP)
• Database (Such as NSF to PST)
• Other (Such as EPS to GIF, or PSD to JPG)
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